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    Self-Optimization — Supplements

    COVID-19: Quarantine Tips & What We Have Learned

    COVID-19: Quarantine Tips & What We Have Learned

    Many of the victims of COVID-19 who have recovered from their illnesses report lingering, ongoing health-related consequences from the experience. Chris Cuomo, news analyst for CNN, reported that he has experienced brain fog, depression, and scarred lungs since his recovery. Medical professionals have concurred that they too are hearing of these same ‘after-effects’. 

    Physicians have discovered lung scarring in patients who have recovered from Covid-19.

    The after-effects of the COVID-19 pandemic/lockdown/distancing phenomena are also going to have a lasting effect on how societies function, going forward. Buried within our psyches will be the indelible realization that the people out there in the world who we want to love and connect with, socialize with, do business with; could also make us sick…potentially gravely sick. Even after we have developed vaccines and treatment regimens for this virus, people will be subconsciously uneasy about the next one.

    These concerns are well-founded. The 1918 flu pandemic, before it had exhausted its three-year run, had claimed the lives of roughly 2.5% of all of the people on earth at that time. They had no medicine to fight it and no understanding of how to prevent its spread through distancing and contact tracing. The drastic measures which are being taken now to quell the spread of COVID-19 are well-founded and necessary.

    Making The Most Out Of This Quarantine

    But to what degree will COVID-19 change us as individuals? Hopefully, if it does change us at all, it will change us for the better. How can we make the most out of this quarantine? Here are some thoughts:

    • Change as little as possible regarding your daily routine
    • Get up at the same time you normally would 
    • Plan out each day like you would any other day
    • Adapt your morning routine and your evening routine to your environment and circumstances
    • Keep in contact with friends and family members with texts, calls, and facetime calls
    • Exercise – adapt your routine to your situation but continue your exercise program
    • Meditate and reflect on the unity that everyone in the world is experiencing through this common experience
    • Embrace the uncertainties we all face and find joy in change
    • Maintain all your good habits and think about how to cultivate new ones 
    • Guard against succumbing to bad habits, such as excessive eating and drinking
    • Try to limit smoking anything right now – protect your lungs
    • Keep yourself busy with productive pursuits 

    Supplements & Dietary Recommendations

    While we wait for the medical establishment to develop a Covid-19 vaccine and effective treatment protocols, we should prepare for this potential fight by strengthening our body’s immune response capability. Along with healthy dietary choices, exercise, meditation, and other well-being measures, we can supplement our diets with immune-boosting substances, including:

    • Liposomal Glutathione is a natural substance contained in all human cells that defends against free radicals and supports a healthy immune system [1] 
    • Quercetin is a flavonoid that supports immune function and inflammatory response [2] 
    • EGCG, or Green Tea extract, is a potent anti-oxidant, shown to stimulate immune response [3] 
    • Cistanche provides immune support by stimulating the development of naïve T cells and natural killer (NK) cell activity [4] 
    • Vitamin D is an important immune support vitamin, and most people in the U.S. are Vitamin D deficient, especially in this period of ‘stay-at-home’ [5] 
    • Vitamin B6 is useful in supporting some immune system biochemical reactions
    • Vitamin C deficiency has been linked to impaired immunity, and supplementation with high doses of Vitamin C has been shown to enhance the proliferation of B and T cells and helps prevent and treat respiratory infections [6] 
    • Zinc has been shown to be essential to immune system function [7] 
    • A 2003 published research study [8] suggests that echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus may all have immune-boosting abilities 

    How Did We Get Here and What Have We Learned?

    On December 31, 2019, the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China reported to the World Health organization that they had a mysterious cluster of forty-one cases of pneumonia of unknown origin in Wuhan. They also reported that there appeared to be a relationship between the cases and the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan was closed down the following day.  

    Chinese wet markets are feared to be potential sources for viral contamination.

    A week later, on January 7, 2020, the Chinese Ministry of Health reported that they had identified a new, or novel coronavirus. Four days later, on January 11, China reported its first death from the COVID-19 virus.  

    But where did this novel coronavirus actually originate from and how did it begin to spread within the human population? Through genetic sequencing, scientists have now identified the virus as originating from bats. But the live animal market in Wuhan was basically a combination open-air butcher shop and seafood market. They did not trade in bats.

    Zoonotic Infections – From Bats to Humans

    COVID-19 is a ‘zoonotic’ disease, meaning that it is a virus or pathogenic organism that jumps from a lower species of life to humans. COVID-19 did jump from animals to humans, but probably not directly. Zoonotic viruses can jump first to an intermediary animal, like a bird or mammal, and then once mingled with that animal’s DNA, it can effectively jump to, and infect humans.  In the case of the SARS outbreak in 2003, scientists believe that the original virus jumped from bats to civet cats to humans.

    Zoonotic viruses have been researched by disease specialists for decades. The Coronaviruses that caused SARS and MERS, and the H1N1 flu were all zoonotic viruses. Researchers have also traced the origin of the HIV virus to animals. The eating of monkey meat in Western Africa has traditionally been considered a delicacy by certain cultures. Researchers now know that the HIV virus jumped to humans from monkeys, most likely when a butcher cut his own hand with his knife and comingled his blood with the monkey’s contaminated blood. 

    Dr. Anthony Fauci, White House spokesperson on infectious diseases, believes that the Huanan Seafood Market was the source of the original infection and that all similar markets in China and elsewhere should be shuttered. He stated, “It boggles my mind how, when we have so many diseases that emanate out of that unusual human-animal interface, that we just don’t shut it down.” The Chinese government announced on February 25th that they had banned the trade and consumption of wild animals. 

    But was the Huanan Market really the source of the virus contamination? Some journalists and research experts aren’t so sure. They believe that the connection to the market had to do more with the crowded, close-quarters that shoppers experience there, with people pushed up against each other, waiting for a merchant to complete their orders. Based on what we now know about Corvid-19 and social distancing, the Huanan market provided the ideal environment for the virus to spread from human to human.

    The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan is in the same neighborhood with the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, where scientists have been studying coronaviruses.

    Human Error – Another Possible Source?

    So, if it didn’t originate in the market, where did it originate? The medical journal, ‘The Lancet’, reported in January that the original human infection of COVID-19 had nothing to do with the Huanan market. As it so happens, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has a local Wuhan facility situated about one and a half blocks from the market. This facility, in conjunction with the nearby Wuhan Institute of Virology, has been conducting tests and publishing papers on their work with coronaviruses. They have reported on their efforts going around China, collecting coronaviruses for research, in the hopes of preventing future illnesses. Did one of their samples leak, or was there some kind of accident in the handling of the virus samples?

    Richard Ebright, a Rutgers microbiologist, and biosafety expert told the Washington Post that the first human infection could have occurred as a natural accident involving a laboratory worker. The virus could have passed directly to a human in the lab, or potentially through another animal. He noted that the coronaviruses were studied in Wuhan at a biosafety level of two, which provides only minimal protection. Scientists and health care workers who handle coronavirus samples now in the U.S. work at a biosafety level of four, the highest. Dr. Ebright also reviewed some of the Wuhan research reports and stated that they included accounts of researchers in caves collecting samples without wearing proper safety gear. One account described a researcher being rained upon with bat urine. 

    In February 2020, ResearchGate published a short article written by Botao and Lei Xiao from Guangzhou’s South China University of Technology. Botao was quoted in the article saying, “In addition to origins of natural recombination and intermediate host, the killer coronavirus probably originated from a laboratory in Wuhan. Safety level may need to be reinforced in high-risk laboratories.” The article was mysteriously withdrawn shortly after publication.

    Some journalists and politicos will use the question of corvid-19’s origins as an opportunity to play the blame game. However, tracing its origins from bat to human offers the U.S., China, and the rest of the world an opportunity to learn from this pandemic, and use that knowledge to prevent future pandemics. 

    Gauging the Risks

    We’ve been down this road before with SARS and MERS. Each of these two previous coronaviruses ran their course with minimal human suffering and loss of life. 

    The SARS virus was particularly lethal, causing death in nearly fifteen percent of those who became infected. But the SARS virus was contained quickly. When someone got infected, symptoms were severe and they realized they were sick right away. Health officials isolated them and used contract tracing to identify people who had come into contact with infected persons and then tested them. Globally there were only 8000 cases with 774 deaths, none of which were in the U.S. By contrast, COVID-19 appears to cause death in about two percent (or more) of those infected. Another factor with SARS was that the virus itself was not robust enough to endure within the human population.

    The 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic eventually infected over 60 million people in the U.S., causing over 12,000 deaths, or .02% of those infected. COVID-19 is about one hundred times more deadly than H1N1, and is just as contagious, if not more so. It also thrives in humans. It is a hearty virus that can remain viable, out in the open, for days. It is for these reasons that Corvid-19 is so dangerous and so deadly.

    We weren’t prepared, psychologically or logistically, for COVID-19. Many people who become infected with it have no symptoms and don’t even realize that they’re infected. It is easily passed onto other people in microscopic water droplets of saliva which emit from our mouths and noses when we breathe, speak, cough, or sneeze. Even the tiniest amount entering our bodies through our mouths, noses, or eyes can infect us. It can also be transmitted through sweat or any other body fluid. We can contrast that with the HIV virus, for example, which can only be transmitted from one person to another by way of internal bodily fluids; blood and/or reproductive fluids. 

    What Have We Learned?

    Every day of this pandemic we learn something new. Some of what we learn are scientific, some are economic, and some is political. Socially, we’re also learning some things about ourselves and each other as we deal with the realities of distancing and isolation. Here are some of the things we’ve learned.

    1. No country on earth, with the possible exception of China and South Korea, was prepared for responding to this pandemic. 
    2. Zoonotic viruses can be highly contagious, perhaps even more contagious than the seasonal flu. 
    3. Zoonotic viruses can be highly robust, remaining viable on surfaces for many days.
    4. Zoonotic viruses can be extremely dangerous, killing as many as 2% or more of those infected. 
    5. The only defense we have against COVID-19, and possible future pandemics for which we have no vaccine, is social distancing and a nearly total shut-down of social and economic activity.
    6. Global trade is a wonderful thing for countries and businesses, but it comes with risks. In the U.S., we are not able to ramp up production on certain vital pieces of medical equipment, like ventilators, because some of the key components in those machines are manufactured in foreign countries. Those foreign suppliers are now unable to supply these parts because of their own pandemic-related realities.
    7. Countries and free societies, like the U.S. and European nations, are more susceptible to pandemics because it is more difficult for their governments to dictate extreme health safety measures to their citizens. 
    8. COVID-19 has no effect on some people it infects while killing others. We know that people with underlying chronic health conditions are more vulnerable. But why some apparently healthy individuals are more susceptible to the virus than others, is a medical mystery. 

    COVID-19 Social and Personal Costs

    The economy is in a maelstrom. But in time, the economy will recover. 

    Our personal relationships have been impacted. In time, we’ll rekindle those connections.

    While we balance on the blade’s edge of this pandemic, we need to continue to be true to ourselves and true to our personal and professional convictions. During this time of isolation, we must be careful not to allow frayed emotions to influence our diets and our wellness routine. Change as little as possible.

    With technology being what it is, we can communicate with others easily and often. Reach out during this crisis to the people you care most about. We’re all experiencing this together and this period of time can actually be an opportunity for bonding and mending fences. 

      Stay Safe, Stay Healthy

      Between now and the time a vaccine is developed and ready for market, stay safe. Follow the experts’ advice. Keep your social distancing. Spend more time at home. Build up your immune response capability. Don’t let your well-being routine be impacted. Stay healthy, stay safe, and remain focused on the positives. If you don’t see them at first, look closer. Every crisis is an opportunity for learning and personal growth.


      1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28853742
      2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27187333
      3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31814545
      4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31295429
      5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23857223
      6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29099763
      7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29186856
      8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15035888

      Guide to Improving Memory Retention & Recall: Science-Backed Tactics & Supplements

      Guide to Improving Memory Retention & Recall: Science-Backed Tactics & Supplements

      With the copious amounts of stress that we put ourselves through on a daily basis, it is no wonder that our brain can lag at times.

      Our jobs are becoming increasingly more demanding. Personal interactions have taken a backseat to those on social media. Many people are working several jobs just to survive.

      Besides this added stress that is characteristic of the digital era, there are other reasons you might be looking for a guide on how to improve memory recall. Aging-related memory deterioration is natural. The onset of a neurodegenerative disease could be another.

      Before we plunge in, let us look at how memories are formed:

      Memory Formation and What it Entails

      All memories begin with perception. Your nerve cells take the torch from your muscles from there. A synapse is where two nerve cells join and pass each other messages in the form of electrical pulses.

      For the synaptic transfer to occur, your brain must release neurotransmitters. Those chemicals carry the message across to the neighboring cells. Since there are 100 trillion synapses, your brain cells can form as many links and talk to each other. That’s how memories are encoded.

      New experiences lead to newer memories and more connections to be formed within your brain. Thus, everything you do makes your brain organize and reorganize itself in response.

      If you want to get better at something, you should look to reinforcing the memory through repetitive action. Your brain will soon find it easier to repeat the firing of synapses in a particular sequence.

      The result is that you improve at that task. You can also help out your brain by being attentive during that task, so you may recall more details later on.

      From Short to Long-Term Memory Formation

      Each memory begins its lifecycle as perception. Then it is stored for the short term. If it is important, your brain gradually transfers it into long-term memory.

      The more you revisit a memory, the more likely it will for it to end up in long-term memory – and thus, retained. You can recall the memories your brain retains.

      In short, a memory is: Perceived -> Memory encoding -> Retained -> Recalled

      For easy reading, this article is divided into two big chunks. The first one focuses on several mind-sharpening and memory-aiding natural ingredients. In that section, you’ll find a discussion on how these substances can help and what their sources are. The next part centers on various strategies – besides dietary choices -- that you may employ to keep your brain young and active.

      The B’s and C’s of Improving Memory Retention

      Vitamin B5 (Panthothenic Acid)

      With this vitamin are associated a multitude of benefits. In our bodies, vitamin B5 acts as the coenzyme A (CoA). According to a report in Vitamins and Hormones[1], CoA is involved in numerous chemical reactions. It is also an important part of the process that turns carbs into glucose. This converted product increases your resilience and makes you feel less tired when under stress. 

      The University of Maryland Medical Center counsels that like the other B vitamins, B5 is also essential for a healthy nervous system. All the Bs are water-soluble, so our bodies cannot store them. Moreover, your brain cannot synthesize B5 by itself. Therefore, your diet needs to contain an adequate amount of this nutrient. 

      Luckily, it is a part of many delicious foods. So, when you munch on the following, you will be getting healthy doses of vitamin B5:

      • Avocado
      • Spinach
      • Banana
      • Sunflower seeds
      • Meats (all varieties)

      Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

      If we are talking vitamins, we cannot deny the role of B9. It can boost your brain’s cognitive powers. Students looking for viable ways about how to memorize and ace their tests may find this interesting. In the study[2] on 166 people with different types of dementia, researchers saw that the patients’ folate levels were down. The pattern was similar for people who had any of the three types of dementia – mixed, vascular, and Alzheimer’s.

      Moreover, in a review, it became clear that falling folic acid levels are linked with cognitive impairment. The risk of mild cognitive impairment becomes higher with dwindling levels of folic acid. 

      Finally, a ScienceDirect article shows that high doses of folic acid may improve memory test scores. The participants in the experiment were 50-75 years old but healthy. Their scores after the dose were similar to individuals 5.5 years younger than them! Folic acid also increased their cognitive speed scores to match those of people 1.9 years younger than the participants.

      So, if you are looking for foods to chomp on that can fulfill your recommended amount of folic acid requirements, try:

      • Leafy green vegetables, such as iceberg, lettuce, and spinach
      • Citrus fruits, such as grapefruit and orange
      • Pasta
      • Beans
      • Cereals
      • Bread
      • Rice

      Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin)

      Another answer to the query, how to improve memory, comes in the form of another B vitamin, i.e., B12. Research indicates that due to a deficiency of this vitamin, we could experience memory loss. This effect is more severe in older adults. 

      But what brain-enriching secrets is this nutrient hiding? For one, it can prevent brain atrophy. When our neurons start to die due to age or dementia, the brain can atrophy. Vitamin B12 can improve matters. In one study[3], we see a decrease in mental decline in people who had early-stage dementia. Researchers were using supplements of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid. In another[4], the result of falling vitamin B12 levels was poor memory performance. Therefore, even if your body isn’t deficient in B12, regular doses may boost your memory.

      What foods contain vitamin B12? It is a part of many animal-based foods, including meat, fish, poultry, seafood, pork, dairy, and eggs! However, if you make clams and liver a part of your diet, you can get 60 and 100 times more vitamin B12 than you’d get from beef or eggs. 

      Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

      Enough about the Bs, let us look at the role vitamin C plays in memory-protection as we age. When considering how to improve memory recall, pay attention to this nutrient. Two of the leading causes that put us at an increased risk[5] for dementia are oxidative stress and an inflammation near the brain, nerves, or spine. Vitamin C is one of nature’s solutions to both those maladies since it is a strong antioxidant.

      When its levels are dangerously low, we find it harder to think[6] and recall[7]. studies[8] on people with dementia, their blood profile also showed plummeting levels[9] of vitamin C! Both via food or through supplements, vitamin C intake protects us from the effects of aging on thinking and memory[10]

      To keep this vitamin in your life and diet, try citrus fruits, sweet potatoes, green peppers, white potatoes, strawberries, tomatoes, and broccoli.

      Other Neuroprotective and Memory-Improving Nootropics

      Lion's Mane

      A mushroom that has neuroprotective qualities[11], the Lion’s mane also improves memory.


      Besides being an important part of the RNA in our bodies, Uridine stimulates neurogenesis – an integral[12] process that improves cognitive function and memory.

      Bacopa monnieri

      Bacopa monnieri[13] is well-known in Ancient Indian medicine or Ayurveda. It promotes learning and has function in memory improvement.


      A bioavailable cholinergic[14], Alpha-GPC prevents cognitive decline, which is one of the main reasons we can develop disorders like Alzheimer’s. The compound also improves neuron communication.

      Pine Bark Extract

      This nootropic compound[15] directs more blood flow to the brain. Thus, it has a hand in improving your working memory. 


      Since Huperzine-A stops the decomposition of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, it affects cognitive and memory-retentive functions in a positive manner.


      Black pepper-extracted piperine[16] can be found in Bioperine. It should be taken with other nootropic compounds, since it facilitates their absorption. 


      DHA[17], an omega-3 fatty acid, helps new brain cells grow and results in improved memory.

      Still wondering how to improve memory retention through supplements? Our nootropic supplement, metaMEMORY — part of the metaBRAIN box — is full of all these memory-enhancing nutrients and more. 

      Tips on How to Memorize 

      We cannot succeed without focusing on the memorization of important details. Whether you’re a student struggling to remember important dates in history or an employee in charge of a project, you cannot afford to forget significant stuff. 

      Below you’ll find some tips to assist you in doing exactly that:

      Write Summaries for Better Understanding

      Whenever you are studying or reading any material that you will need to memorize, start by summarizing each paragraph as you go. Don’t worry about the language or grammar. Just focus on writing it in a way that you find understandable. Doing so can help you retain the information you record! 

      Form Associations with Things you Know

      A great strategy regarding how to memorize stuff has to do with forming a mental connection. Usually, relating something new to what you already know can help you remember it later. It is also why using mnemonics[18] can bring improvement to recall.

      Say No to Multitasking

      While it may surprise you, it is nevertheless true. Multitasking defeats the purpose of practicing any of the other tips on how to memorize. Yes, in our technology-driven world, it is difficult to find a true moment of single-purpose action. We are always doing several things at once. Texting while eating, for example, is how most of us would define dinnertime!

      Even so, this study clarifies that instead of making us more efficient, multitasking is undermining our ability to do something well. It takes our mental gears some time to shift from one task to another. We waste that time when we keep switching between multiple tasks.

      Grow your Own Memory Tree

      A successful suggestion for you if you are looking for ways on how to memorize stuff is to put them on your memory tree. For example, when faced with a huge number of facts, relate them by visually placing them on your memory tree. 

      To make this happen, begin with the thickest and biggest branches. As they are formed, label them in a way that is personally meaningful to you. Then organize leaves on them in the order that seems right – again, to you! Then move on to slender or smaller branches. This is similar to chunking information to make it easier to recall.

      Tips on How to Improve Memory

      Improving how your brain stores memories or forms them can also be helpful. Here are some tricks in that area too:

      Train the Brain

      If you want to determine how to improve memory, start training your brain! In essence, it is very similar to going to a gym to build muscles. A trial in PLoS One[19] showed that people doing only 15 minutes of brain training activities throughout the week exhibited improved brain function. That included their working memory, problem solving skills, and short term memory. 

      A great way to get into a mental workout is by visiting the website Lumosity. Do the activities, solve the puzzles, etc., there to train the brain.

      Say Om! for Another How to Improve Memory Trick 

      We refer to meditation here because it can help improve your working memory. That’s the one you use every day. Research on participants who had no experience in mindfulness meditation shows that it only took them eight weeks to start benefiting from it. Meditation can also improve standardized test scores[20] in just two weeks!

      Exercise could Help Jog your Memory

      Regular exercise has so many benefits. Two great ones are improvement in memory recall and spatial memory[21]. Don’t like hitting the weights? That’s okay. Just go for a quick walk and see how it ignites your brain functions.

      Tips on How to Improve Memory Recall 

      Imagine life and how great it would be if you could recall every detail from an article that you read two days ago. No dice? How about the one you read just yesterday? Not that either? Okay, let us aim for an article that you read several hours ago. Were you able to succeed this time? Great, but we have even better news in this regard. You can improve your memory recall. It will just take practicing some of the valuable tricks mentioned below: 

      Take Learning Very Personally

      How to improve memory recall becomes quite doable if you can tailor how you learn to how you like learning the most. Most of us favor one of the three learning styles:

      1. Visual
      2. Auditory
      3. Kinesthetic

      If this is the first, you’re hearing of these styles, it is okay. Just focus on subjects that you are really good at -- or test well for. Then consider the way you study for them or approach them. You’ll likely realize that your learning style for these subjects doesn’t match the one for others. The learning style that works for you should be the one you affect for everything else too. 

      Now, visual learning is all about pictures, infographics, and diagrams. Listening to the audio version of information to learn it refers to the auditory way. Kinesthetic is linked with interaction with information in some form, way, or shape. So, pick the style you prefer and stick with it!

      Be a Foreigner in your own Home

      When considering ways on how to improve memory recall, think about becoming bilingual. Do that because, for one, it is good for the brain. That’s because you continually ask your brain to recall information and translate it into another language. 

      Secondly, when you learn another language, you make your brain exercise whenever you talk with people. Conversation stimulates the production of healthy chemicals, such as cortisol[22]

      How to Improve Memory Retention 

      Finally, while it is great to improve the way you recall or memorize things, it is equally essential to work on how to improve memory retention. After all, how your brain stores information will influence how well it can recall it later. The following suggestions come highly recommended:

      Keep Chewing

      Because it helps you build stronger memories! When facing new information, stick a piece of gum in your maw and chew. This study portrays how this action lent more accuracy to the completion of memory recall tasks and increased reaction times in participants. 

      Another one postulates that due to a higher heart rate, the brains of the participants who chewed gum received more oxygen. Thus, they did better on memory recall tests than others!

      Be Interested Rather than Interesting

      Or both. But only the former will be helpful in how to improve memory retention. That’s because we don’t forget what interests us. Think about the cutest individual you’ve met. Do you remember their name? Why? Because this trick works!

      Therefore, being intrinsically interested in what you're learning will assist your brain in retaining that information. Don’t find the Krebs’s cycle remotely exciting? Well mate, you’d better find ways on how to make it so to ace your Biology exam. 

      So, were you looking for how to improve memory? Did you find any tips that you can use?



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      [2] Reynolds, E H. “Folic acid, ageing, depression, and dementia.” BMJ (Clinical research ed.) vol. 324,7352 (2002): 1512-5. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7352.1512

      [3] Oulhaj, Abderrahim et al. “Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment.” Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD vol. 50,2 (2016): 547-57. doi:10.3233/JAD-150777

      [4] Köbe T, Witte AV, Schnelle A, Grittner U, Tesky VA, Pantel J, Schuchardt JP, Hahn A, Bohlken J, Rujescu D, Flöel A. Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;103(4):1045-54. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.116970. Epub 2016 Feb 24. PubMed PMID: 26912492.

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      [9] Charlton KE, Rabinowitz TL, Geffen LN, Dhansay MA. Lowered plasma vitamin C, but not vitamin E, concentrations in dementia patients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(2):99-107. PubMed PMID: 14978605.

      [10] Paleologos M, Cumming RG, Lazarus R. Cohort study of vitamin C intake and cognitive impairment. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Jul 1;148(1):45-50. PubMed PMID: 9663403.

      [11] Sabaratnam V, Kah-Hui W, Naidu M, Rosie David P. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help? J Tradit Complement Med. 2013 Jan;3(1):62-8. doi: 10.4103/2225-4110.106549. Review. PubMed PMID: 24716157; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3924982.

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